The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.
المقاومة الكهربائية هي نوع من الموصلات الكهربائية التي تقاس قيمتها بممانعتها لمرور التيار الكهربائي من خلالها.
المقاومة الكهربائية لموصل كهربائي هي مقياس لمدى صعوبة مرور التيار الكهربائي من خلال الموصل.
The inverse quantity is electrical conductance, and is the ease with which an electric current passes.
وهي القيمة العكسية للموصلية (مقلوب الموصلية)،وهي التي تقلل مرور التيار من خلالها .
معكوس قيمة المقاومة يعطي قيمة الموصلية الكهربائية، و التي تقيس مدى سهولة مرور التيار من خلال الموصل.
Electrical resistance shares some conceptual parallels with the notion of mechanical friction.
تتشارك المقاومة الكهربائية و مفهوم الإحتكاك الميكانيكي في بعض الخصائص النظرية المتوازية.
The SI unit of electrical resistance is the ohm (Ω), while electrical conductance is measured in siemens (S).
الوحدة الدولية للمقاومة الكهربائية هي الأوم -ohm- و يرمز لها بـ (Ω)، في حين أن وحدة التوصيل الكهربائي تقاس بالسيمنس (أو سيمنز) -siemens- و يرمز لها بـ (S).
An object of uniform cross section has a resistance proportional to its resistivity and length and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area.
إن جسما ذو مقطع عرضي متجانس، له مقاومة تتناسب طرديا مع كل من المقاومة النوعية و طول الجسم، و عكسيا مع مساحة المقطع العرضي.
All materials show some resistance, except for superconductors, which have a resistance of zero.
كل المواد تمتلك مقاومة كهربائية، باستثناء الموصلات الفائقة، و التي لا تظهر أي مقاومة -مقاومة صفرية-.
The resistance (R) of an object is defined as the ratio of voltage across it (V) to current through it (I), while the conductance (G) is the inverse:
تعرف مقاومة جسم ما (R) بأنها نسبة الجهد (V) في طرفيه إلى التيار الكهربائي (I) المار خلال الجسم، حيث أن الموصلية (G) هو المعكوس:
For a wide variety of materials and conditions, V and I are directly proportional to each other, and therefore R and G are constant (although they can depend on other factors like temperature or strain).
The ratio V/I is sometimes still useful, and is referred to as a "chordal resistance" or "static resistance", since it corresponds to the inverse slope of a chord between the origin and an I–V curve.
In other situations, the derivative may be most useful; this is called the "differential resistance".
In the hydraulic analogy, current flowing through a wire (or resistor) is like water flowing through a pipe, and the voltage drop across the wire is like the pressure drop that pushes water through the pipe.
Conductance is proportional to how much flow occurs for a given pressure, and resistance is proportional to how much pressure is required to achieve a given flow.
The voltage drop (i.e., difference between voltages on one side of the resistor and the other), not the voltage itself, provides the driving force pushing current through a resistor.
In hydraulics, it is similar: The pressure difference between two sides of a pipe, not the pressure itself, determines the flow through it.
For example, there may be a large water pressure above the pipe, which tries to push water down through the pipe.
But there may be an equally large water pressure below the pipe, which tries to push water back up through the pipe.
The resistance and conductance of a wire, resistor, or other element is mostly determined by two properties:
Geometry is important because it is more difficult to push water through a long, narrow pipe than a wide, short pipe.
In the same way, a long, thin copper wire has higher resistance (lower conductance) than a short, thick copper wire.
A pipe filled with hair restricts the flow of water more than a clean pipe of the same shape and size.
Similarly, electrons can flow freely and easily through a copper wire, but cannot flow as easily through a steel wire of the same shape and size, and they essentially cannot flow at all through an insulator like rubber, regardless of its shape.
The difference between, copper, steel, and rubber is related to their microscopic structure and electron configuration, and is quantified by a property called resistivity.
In addition to geometry and material, there are various other factors that influence resistance and conductance, such as temperature; see below.
A piece of conducting material of a particular resistance meant for use in a circuit is called a resistor.
Conductors are made of high-conductivity materials such as metals, in particular copper and aluminium.
Resistors, on the other hand, are made of a wide variety of materials depending on factors such as the desired resistance, amount of energy that it needs to dissipate, precision, and costs.
This law is not always true: For example, it is false for diodes, batteries, and other devices whose conductance is not constant.
However, it is true to a very good approximation for wires and resistors (assuming that other conditions, including temperature, are held constant).
Materials or objects where Ohm's law is true are called ohmic, whereas objects that do not obey Ohm's law are non-ohmic.
The resistance of a given object depends primarily on two factors: What material it is made of, and its shape.
For a given material, the resistance is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area; for example, a thick copper wire has lower resistance than an otherwise-identical thin copper wire.
Also, for a given material, the resistance is proportional to the length; for example, a long copper wire has higher resistance than an otherwise-identical short copper wire.
The resistance R and conductance G of a conductor of uniform cross section, therefore, can be computed as
where is the length of the conductor, measured in metres [m], A is the cross-sectional area of the conductor measured in square metres [m²], σ (sigma) is the electrical conductivity measured in siemens per meter (S·m−1), and ρ (rho) is the electrical resistivity (also called specific electrical resistance) of the material, measured in ohm-metres (Ω·m).
The resistivity and conductivity are proportionality constants, and therefore depend only on the material the wire is made of, not the geometry of the wire.
This formula is not exact, as it assumes the current density is totally uniform in the conductor, which is not always true in practical situations.
Another situation for which this formula is not exact is with alternating current (AC), because the skin effect inhibits current flow near the center of the conductor.
For this reason, the geometrical cross-section is different from the effective cross-section in which current actually flows, so resistance is higher than expected.
Similarly, if two conductors near each other carry AC current, their resistances increase due to the proximity effect.
At commercial power frequency, these effects are significant for large conductors carrying large currents, such as busbars in an electrical substation, or large power cables carrying more than a few hundred amperes.
The resistivity of different materials varies by an enormous amount: For example, the conductivity of teflon is about 1030 times lower than the conductivity of copper.
Loosely speaking, a metal has large numbers of "delocalized" electrons that are not stuck in any one place, but free to move across large distances, whereas in an insulator (like teflon), each electron is tightly bound to a single molecule, and a great force is required to pull it away.
Simple ohmmeters cannot measure low resistances accurately because the resistance of their measuring leads causes a voltage drop that interferes with the measurement, so more accurate devices use four-terminal sensing.
These are called non-ohmic or non-linear, and are characterized by an I–V curve, which is not a straight line through the origin.
However, unlike ohmic resistance, non-linear resistance is not constant but varies with the voltage or current through the device; i.e., its operating point.
Static resistance (also called chordal or DC resistance) - This corresponds to the usual definition of resistance; the voltage divided by the current
Points on the IV curve located in the 2nd or 4th quadrants, for which the slope of the chordal line is negative, have negative static resistance.
However active devices such as transistors or op-amps can synthesize negative static resistance with feedback, and it is used in some circuits such as gyrators.
Differential resistance (also called dynamic, incremental or small signal resistance) - Differential resistance is the derivative of the voltage with respect to the current; the slope of the IV curve at a point
If the IV curve is nonmonotonic (with peaks and troughs), the curve has a negative slope in some regions—so in these regions the device has negative differential resistance.
Devices with negative differential resistance can amplify a signal applied to them, and are used to make amplifiers and oscillators.
These include tunnel diodes, Gunn diodes, IMPATT diodes, magnetron tubes, and unijunction transistors.
When an alternating current flows through a circuit, the relation between current and voltage across a circuit element is characterized not only by the ratio of their magnitudes, but also the difference in their phases.
For example, in an ideal resistor, the moment when the voltage reaches its maximum, the current also reaches its maximum (current and voltage are oscillating in phase).
But for a capacitor or inductor, the maximum current flow occurs as the voltage passes through zero and vice versa (current and voltage are oscillating 90° out of phase, see image at right).
t is time, V(t) and I(t) are, respectively, voltage and current as a function of time, V0, I0, Z, and Y are complex numbers, Z is called impedance, Y is called admittance, Re indicates real part, is the angular frequency of the AC current, is the imaginary unit.
The impedance and admittance may be expressed as complex numbers that can be broken into real and imaginary parts:
For ideal resistors, Z and Y reduce to R and G respectively, but for AC networks containing capacitors and inductors, X and B are nonzero.
Another complication of AC circuits is that the resistance and conductance can be frequency-dependent.
Another reason is that the resistivity itself may depend on frequency (see Drude model, deep-level traps, resonant frequency, Kramers–Kronig relations, etc.)
Resistors (and other elements with resistance) oppose the flow of electric current; therefore, electrical energy is required to push current through the resistance.
This is called Joule heating (after James Prescott Joule), also called ohmic heating or resistive heating.
The dissipation of electrical energy is often undesired, particularly in the case of transmission losses in power lines.
On the other hand, Joule heating is sometimes useful, for example in electric stoves and other electric heaters (also called resistive heaters).
As another example, incandescent lamps rely on Joule heating: the filament is heated to such a high temperature that it glows "white hot" with thermal radiation (also called incandescence).
where P is the power (energy per unit time) converted from electrical energy to thermal energy, R is the resistance, and I is the current through the resistor.
Near room temperature, the resistivity of metals typically increases as temperature is increased, while the resistivity of semiconductors typically decreases as temperature is increased.
As a consequence, the resistance of wires, resistors, and other components often change with temperature.
When temperature-dependent resistance of a component is used purposefully, the component is called a resistance thermometer or thermistor.
(A resistance thermometer is made of metal, usually platinum, while a thermistor is made of ceramic or polymer.)
First, they can be used as thermometers: By measuring the resistance, the temperature of the environment can be inferred.
Second, they can be used in conjunction with Joule heating (also called self-heating): If a large current is running through the resistor, the resistor's temperature rises and therefore its resistance changes.
Therefore, these components can be used in a circuit-protection role similar to fuses, or for feedback in circuits, or for many other purposes.
where is called the temperature coefficient of resistance, is a fixed reference temperature (usually room temperature), and is the resistance at temperature .
Because the linear approximation is only an approximation, is different for different reference temperatures.
For this reason it is usual to specify the temperature that was measured at with a suffix, such as , and the relationship only holds in a range of temperatures around the reference.
The temperature coefficient is typically +3×10−3 K−1 to +6×10−3 K−1 for metals near room temperature.
Just as the resistance of a conductor depends upon temperature, the resistance of a conductor depends upon strain.
By placing a conductor under tension (a form of stress that leads to strain in the form of stretching of the conductor), the length of the section of conductor under tension increases and its cross-sectional area decreases.
Under compression (strain in the opposite direction), the resistance of the strained section of conductor decreases.
See the discussion on strain gauges for details about devices constructed to take advantage of this effect.
Some resistors, particularly those made from semiconductors, exhibit photoconductivity, meaning that their resistance changes when light is shining on them.
Superconductors are materials that have exactly zero resistance and infinite conductance, because they can have V=0 and I≠0.
Therefore, if superconductive wire is made into a closed loop, current flows around the loop forever.
Superconductors require cooling to temperatures near 4 K with liquid helium for most metallic superconductors like NbSn alloys, or cooling to temperatures near 77K with liquid nitrogen for the expensive, brittle and delicate ceramic high temperature superconductors.