Diplomacy (from the Greek δίπλωμα, meaning making a deal with other countries) is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states.
الدبلوماسية (كلمة يونلنية قديمه δίπλωμα,وتعني عقد صفقة او اتفاق مع بلدان اخرى)وهي فن ممارسة سلوك التفاوض بين ممثلي الدول.rn
الدبلوماسية (كلمة يونلنية قديمه δίπλωμα,وتعني عقد صفقة مع بلدان اخرى)وهي فن ممارسة سلوك التفاوض بين ممثلي الدول.
--~~~~ Nouf m
It usually refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international relations through the intercession of professional diplomats with regard to issues of peace-making, trade, war, economics, culture, environment, and human rights.
وعادة ما يشير إلى الدبلوماسية الدولية، وإدارة العلاقات الدولية بشفاعة الدبلوماسيين المحترفين فيما يتعلق بقضايا صنع السلام، والتجارة، والحرب، والاقتصاد، والثقافة، والبيئة، وحقوق الإنسان.rnrn
--~~~~ Nouf m
International treaties are usually negotiated by diplomats prior to endorsement by national politicians.
عادة ما يتم التفاوض المعاهدات الدولية دبلوماسيون قبل إقرارها من قبل السياسيين .
--~~~~ Nouf m
In an informal or social sense, diplomacy is the employment of tact to gain strategic advantage or to find mutually acceptable solutions to a common challenge, one set of tools being the phrasing of statements in a non-confrontational, or polite manner.
بالمعنى الرسمي أو الاجتماعي، أو الدبلوماسية هي العمل من براعة لاكتساب ميزة استراتيجية لإيجاد حلول مقبولة للطرفين لتحد مشترك، مجموعة واحدة من أدوات كونه صيغة البيانات بطريقة غير تصادمية، أو مهذبة.
--~~~~ Nouf m
The scholarly discipline of diplomatics, dealing with the study of old documents, derives its name from the same source, but its modern meaning is quite distinct from the activity of diplomacy.
الانضباط العلمي الدبلوماسيين، والتعامل مع دراسة الوثائق القديمة، وتستمد اسمها من نفس المصدر، ولكن معناها الحديث يختلف تماما عن النشاط الدبلوماسية.
--~~~~ Nouf m
One of the earliest realists in international relations theory was the 6th century BC military strategist Sun Tzu (d.
واحد من اوائل الواقعيين في نظرية العلاقات الدولية كان القرن السادس قبل الميلاد العسكري الاستراتيجي سن تزو
He lived during a time in which rival states were starting to pay less attention to traditional respects of tutelage to the Zhou Dynasty (c.
1050–256 BC) figurehead monarchs while each vied for power and total conquest. However, a great deal of diplomacy in establishing allies, bartering land, and signing peace treaties was necessary for each warring state, and the idealized role of the "persuader/diplomat" developed.
From the Battle of Baideng (200 BC) to the Battle of Mayi (133 BC), the Han Dynasty was forced to uphold a marriage alliance and pay an exorbitant amount of tribute (in silk, cloth, grain, and other foodstuffs) to the powerful northern nomadic Xiongnu that had been consolidated by Modu Shanyu.
180–157) that they controlled areas stretching from Manchuria to the Tarim Basin oasis city-states, a treaty was drafted in 162 BC proclaiming that everything north of the Great Wall belong to nomads' lands, while everything south of it would be reserved for Han Chinese.
The treaty was renewed no less than nine times, but did not restrain some Xiongnu tuqi from raiding Han borders.
141–87 BC) which shattered the unity of the Xiongnu and allowed Han to conquer the Western Regions; under Wu, in 104 BC the Han armies ventured as far Fergana in Central Asia to battle the Yuezhi who had conquered Hellenistic Greek areas.
The Koreans and Japanese during the Chinese Tang Dynasty (618–907 AD) looked to the Chinese capital of Chang'an as the hub of civilization and emulated its central bureaucracy as the model of governance.
The Japanese sent frequent embassies to China in this period, although they halted these trips in 894 when the Tang seemed on the brink of collapse.
After the devastating An Shi Rebellion from 755 to 763, the Tang Dynasty was in no position to reconquer Central Asia and the Tarim Basin.
After several conflicts with the Tibetan Empire spanning several different decades, the Tang finally made a truce and signed a peace treaty with them in 841.
In the 11th century during the Song Dynasty (960–1279), there were cunning ambassadors such as Shen Kuo and Su Song who achieved diplomatic success with the Liao Dynasty, the often hostile Khitan neighbor to the north.
Both diplomats secured the rightful borders of the Song Dynasty through knowledge of cartography and dredging up old court archives. There was also a triad of warfare and diplomacy between these two states and the Tangut Western Xia Dynasty to the northwest of Song China (centered in modern-day Shaanxi).
After warring with the Lý Dynasty of Vietnam from 1075 to 1077, Song and Lý made a peace agreement in 1082 to exchange the respective lands they had captured from each other during the war.
Long before the Tang and Song dynasties, the Chinese had sent envoys into Central Asia, India, and Persia, starting with Zhang Qian in the 2nd century BC.
Another notable event in Chinese diplomacy was the Chinese embassy mission of Zhou Daguan to the Khmer Empire of Cambodia in the 13th century.
Since the Tang Dynasty (618–907 AD), the Chinese also became heavily invested in sending diplomatic envoys abroad on maritime missions into the Indian Ocean, to India, Persia, Arabia, East Africa, and Egypt.
Chinese maritime activity was increased dramatically during the commercialized period of the Song Dynasty, with new nautical technologies, many more private ship owners, and an increasing amount of economic investors in overseas ventures.
During the Mongol Empire (1206–1294) the Mongols created something similar to today's diplomatic passport called paiza.
The paiza were in three different types (golden, silver, and copper) depending on the envoy's level of importance.
With the paiza, there came authority that the envoy can ask for food, transport, place to stay from any city, village, or clan within the empire with no difficulties.
From the 17th century the Qing Dynasty concluded a series of treaties with Czarist Russia, beginning with the Treaty of Nerchinsk in the year 1689.
As European power spread around the world in the 18th and 19th centuries so too did its diplomatic model, and Asian countries adopted European diplomatic systems.
The oldest treatise on statecraft and diplomacy, Arthashastra, is attributed to Kautilya (also known as Chanakya), who was the principal adviser to Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya dynasty who ruled in the 3rd century BC, (whose capital was Pataliputra, today's Patna, the chief city of Bihar state).
Arthashastra is a complete work on the art of kingship, with long chapters on taxation and on the raising and maintenance of armies.
It also incorporates a theory of diplomacy, of how in a situation of mutually contesting kingdoms, the wise king builds alliances and tries to checkmate his adversaries.
The envoys sent at the time to the courts of other kingdoms tended to reside for extended periods of time, and Arthashastra contains advice on the deportment of the envoy, including the trenchant suggestion that 'he should sleep alone'.
It is also good to note that Lord Krishna, in the epic Mahabharata, acted as a divine diplomat and statesman between the Kuru and Pandava dynasties.
Diplomatic relations within the Early Modern era of Asia were depicted as an environment of prestige and Status.
It was maintained that one must be of noble ancestry in order to represent an autonomous state within the international arena.
Therefore, the position of diplomat was often revered as an element of the elitist class within Asia.
A state's ability to practice diplomacy has been one of the underlying defining characteristics of an autonomous state.
It is this practice that has been employed since the conception of the first city-states within the international spectrum.
A high rank was bestowed upon them in order to present a sense of legitimacy with regards to their presence.
Italy, the Ottoman Empire, and China were the first real states that perpetuated environments of diplomacy.
During the early modern era diplomacy evolved to become a crucial element of international relations within the Mediterranean and Asia.
The ability to practice diplomacy is one of the defining elements of a state.
احد العناصر المميزة للدولة هي قدرتها على ممارسة الدبلوماسية.
Diplomacy has been practiced since the inception of civilization.
وقد تم ممارسة الدبلوماسية منذ بداية الحضارة.
In Europe, diplomacy begins with the first city-states formed in ancient Greece.
ففي اوروبا، بدأت الدبلوماسية مع بداية دولة المدينة الاولى في اليونان القديمة.
Diplomats were sent only for specific negotiations, and would return immediately after their mission concluded.
فقد كان الدبلموماسيون يبعثون لخوض مفاوضات محددة، ويعودون فور انتهاء مهامهم.
Diplomats were usually relatives of the ruling family or of very high rank in order to give them legitimacy when they sought to negotiate with the other state.
ويكون الدبلماسيون عادة من اقارب العائلة الحاكمة او من ذوي الرتب العالية في الدولة. مما يعطيهم الشرعية حين يخوضون المفاوضات مع الدول الاخرى.
The origins of diplomacy are in the strategic and competitive exchange of impressive gifts, which may be traced to the Bronze Age and recognized as an aspect of Homeric guest-friendship.
"In the framework of diplomatic relations it was customary for Byzantine emperors and Muslim rulers, especially the 'Abbāsids and the Fātimids, as well as for Muslim rulers between themselves, to exchange precious gifts, with which they attempted to impress or surpass their counterparts," remarks David Jacoby, in the context of the economics of silk in cultural exchange among Byzantium, Islam and the Latin West: merchants accompanied emissaries, who often traveled on commercial ships.
At a later date, it will be recalled that the English adventurer and trader Anthony Sherley convinced the Persian ruler to send the first Persian embassy to Europe (1599–1602).
The Greek City States on some occasions sent envoys to each other in order to negotiate specific issues, such as war and peace or commercial relations, but did not have diplomatic representatives regularly posted in each other's territory.
However, some of the functions given to modern diplomatic representatives were in Classical Greece filled by a proxenos, who was a citizen of the host city having a particular relations of friendship with another city – a relationship often hereditary in a particular family.
The key challenge to the Byzantine Empire was to maintain a set of relations between itself and its sundry neighbors, including the Georgians, Iberians, the Germanic peoples, the Bulgars, the Slavs, the Armenians, the Huns, the Avars, the Franks, the Lombards, and the Arabs, that embodied and so maintained its imperial status.
All these neighbors lacked a key resource that Byzantium had taken over from Rome, namely a formalized legal structure.
Whereas classical writers are fond of making a sharp distinction between peace and war, for the Byzantines diplomacy was a form of war by other means.
With a regular army of 120,000-140,000 men after the losses of the seventh century, the empire's security depended on activist diplomacy.
Byzantium's "Bureau of Barbarians" was the first foreign intelligence agency, gathering information on the empire’s rivals from every imaginable source.
While on the surface a protocol office—its main duty was to ensure foreign envoys were properly cared for and received sufficient state funds for their maintenance, and it kept all the official translators—it clearly had a security function as well.
On Strategy, from the 6th century, offers advice about foreign embassies: "[Envoys] who are sent to us should be received honourably and generously, for everyone holds envoys in high esteem.
Their attendants, however, should be kept under surveillance to keep them from obtaining any information by asking questions of our people."
In Europe, early modern diplomacy's origins are often traced to the states of Northern Italy in the early Renaissance, with the first embassies being established in the 13th century.
Milan played a leading role, especially under Francesco Sforza who established permanent embassies to the other city states of Northern Italy.
It was in the Italian Peninsula that many of the traditions of modern diplomacy began, such as the presentation of an ambassador's credentials to the head of state.
However, Milan refused to host French representatives fearing espionage and that the French representatives would intervene in its internal affairs.
As foreign powers such as France and Spain became increasingly involved in Italian politics the need to accept emissaries was recognized.
Soon the major European powers were exchanging representatives. Spain was the first to send a permanent representative; it appointed an ambassador to the Court of England in 1487.
The Holy Roman Emperor, however, did not regularly send permanent legates, as they could not represent the interests of all the German princes (who were in theory all subordinate to the Emperor, but in practice each independent).
At that time an ambassador was a nobleman, the rank of the noble assigned varying with the prestige of the country he was delegated to.
Strict standards developed for ambassadors, requiring they have large residences, host lavish parties, and play an important role in the court life of their host nation.
In Rome, the most prized posting for a Catholic ambassador, the French and Spanish representatives would have a retinue of up to a hundred.
The ambassadors from each state were ranked by complex levels of precedence that were much disputed.
States were normally ranked by the title of the sovereign; for Catholic nations the emissary from the Vatican was paramount, then those from the kingdoms, then those from duchies and principalities.
Representatives from republics were ranked the lowest (which often angered the leaders of the numerous German, Scandinavian and Italian republics).
Determining precedence between two kingdoms depended on a number of factors that often fluctuated, leading to near-constant squabbling.
Ambassadors, nobles with little foreign experience and no expectation of a career in diplomacy, needed to be supported by large embassy staff.
These professionals would be sent on longer assignments and would be far more knowledgeable than the higher-ranking officials about the host country.
The need for skilled individuals to staff embassies was met by the graduates of universities, and this led to a great increase in the study of international law, modern languages, and history at universities throughout Europe.
At the same time, permanent foreign ministries began to be established in almost all European states to coordinate embassies and their staffs.
These ministries were still far from their modern form, and many of them had extraneous internal responsibilities.
France, which boasted the largest foreign affairs department, had only some 70 full-time employees in the 1780s.
The elements of modern diplomacy slowly spread to Eastern Europe and Russia, arriving by the early 18th century. The entire edifice would be greatly disrupted by the French Revolution and the subsequent years of warfare.
The revolution would see commoners take over the diplomacy of the French state, and of those conquered by revolutionary armies.
Napoleon also refused to acknowledge diplomatic immunity, imprisoning several British diplomats accused of scheming against France.
After the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna of 1815 established an international system of diplomatic rank.
Disputes on precedence among nations (and therefore the appropriate diplomatic ranks used) were first addressed at the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1818, but persisted for over a century until after World War II, when the rank of ambassador became the norm.
In between that time, figures such as the German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck were renowned for international diplomacy.
Some of the earliest known diplomatic records are the Amarna letters written between the pharaohs of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt and the Amurru rulers of Canaan during the 14th century BC.
Following the Battle of Kadesh in c. 1274 BC during the Nineteenth dynasty, the pharaoh of Egypt and ruler of the Hittite Empire created one of the first known international peace treaties which survives in stone tablet fragments.
Relations with the government of the Ottoman Empire (known to Italian states as the Sublime Porte) were particularly important to Italian states.
The maritime republics of Genoa and Venice depended less and less upon their nautical capabilities, and more and more upon the perpetuation of good relations with the Ottomans.
Interactions between various merchants, diplomats and clergy men hailing from the Italian and Ottoman empires helped inaugurate and create new forms of diplomacy and statecraft.
Eventually the primary purpose of a diplomat, which was originally a negotiator, evolved into a persona that represented an autonomous state in all aspects of political affairs.
It became evident that all other sovereigns felt the need to accommodate themselves diplomatically, due to the emergence of the powerful political environment of the Ottoman Empire.
One could come to the conclusion that the atmosphere of diplomacy within the early modern period revolved around a foundation of conformity to Ottoman culture.
The sanctity of diplomats has long been observed.
لطالما كانت حرمة الدبلوماسيين مصونة.
This sanctity has come to be known as diplomatic immunity.
واصبحت تلك الحرمة تعرف بالحصانة الدبلوماسية.
While there have been a number of cases where diplomats have been killed, this is normally viewed as a great breach of honour.
فمقتل الدبلوماسيين، وان حصل عدة مرات، يُعتبر ثلمة كبيرة للشرف.
Genghis Khan and the Mongols were well known for strongly insisting on the rights of diplomats, and they would often wreak horrific vengeance against any state that violated these rights.
اشتهر جنكيز خان والمغول بحرصهم الشديد على حقوق الدبلوماسيين، حتى انهم ينتقمون بعنف من اي دولة تنتهك تلك الحقوق.
Diplomatic rights were established in the mid-17th century in Europe and have spread throughout the world.
وقد تم تأسيس حقوق الدبلوماسيين في منتصف القرن السابع عشر في اوروبا، ومن ثم انتشر بالعالم.
These rights were formalized by the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, which protects diplomats from being persecuted or prosecuted while on a diplomatic mission.
If a diplomat does commit a serious crime while in a host country he may be declared as persona non grata (unwanted person).
Diplomatic communications are also viewed as sacrosanct, and diplomats have long been allowed to carry documents across borders without being searched.
The mechanism for this is the so-called "diplomatic bag" (or, in some countries, the "diplomatic pouch").
While radio and digital communication have become more standard for embassies, diplomatic pouches are still quite common and some countries, including the United States, declare entire shipping containers as diplomatic pouches to bring sensitive material (often building supplies) into a country.
In times of hostility, diplomats are often withdrawn for reasons of personal safety, as well as in some cases when the host country is friendly but there is a perceived threat from internal dissidents.
Ambassadors and other diplomats are sometimes recalled temporarily by their home countries as a way to express displeasure with the host country.
Embassies are bases for both diplomats and spies, and some diplomats are essentially openly acknowledged spies.
For instance, the job of military attachés includes learning as much as possible about the military of the nation to which they are assigned.
They do not try to hide this role and, as such, are only invited to events allowed by their hosts, such as military parades or air shows.
These individuals are given fake positions at the embassy, but their main task is to illegally gather intelligence, usually by coordinating spy rings of locals or other spies.
For the most part, spies operating out of embassies gather little intelligence themselves and their identities tend to be known by the opposition.
If discovered, these diplomats can be expelled from an embassy, but for the most part counter-intelligence agencies prefer to keep these agents in situ and under close monitoring.
Arms-control treaties would be impossible without the power of reconnaissance satellites and agents to monitor compliance.
Information gleaned from espionage is useful in almost all forms of diplomacy, everything from trade agreements to border disputes.
Various processes and procedures have evolved over time for handling diplomatic issues and disputes.
Nations sometimes resort to international arbitration when faced with a specific question or point of contention in need of resolution.
They were generally accepted to abide by general principles and protocols related to international law and justice.
In such cases a commission of diplomats might be convened to hear all sides of an issue, and to come some sort of ruling based on international law.
In the modern era, much of this work is often carried out by the International Court of Justice at The Hague, or other formal commissions, agencies and tribunals, working under the United Nations.
Hay-Herbert Treaty Enacted after the United States and Britain submitted a dispute to international mediation about the US-Canadian border.
However, participants are expected to guide themselves through principles of international fairness, logic, and protocol.
Congress of Vienna (1815) – After Napoleon was defeated, there were many diplomatic questions waiting to be resolved.
This included the shape of the map of Europe, the disposition of political and nationalist claims of various ethnic groups and nationalities wishing to have some political autonomy, and the resolution of various claims by various European powers.
The Congress of Berlin (June 13 – July 13, 1878) was a meeting of the European Great Powers' and the Ottoman Empire's leading statesmen in Berlin in 1878.
In the wake of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–78, the meeting's aim was to reorganize conditions in the Balkans.
Sometimes nations convene official negotiation processes to settle a specific dispute or specific issue between several nations which are parties to a dispute.
These are similar to the conferences mentioned above, as there are technically no established rules or procedures.
However, there are general principles and precedents which help define a course for such proceedings.
Camp David accord Convened in 1978 by President Jimmy Carter of the United States, at Camp David to reach an agreement between Prime Minister Mechaem Begin of Israel and President Anwar Sadat of Egypt.
After weeks of negotiation, agreement was reached and the accords were signed, later leading directly to the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty of 1979.
Treaty of Portsmouth Enacted after President Theodore Roosevelt brought together the delegates from Russia and Japan, to settle the Russo-Japanese War.
Roosevelt's personal intervention settled the conflict, and caused him to win the Nobel peace prize.
Diplomatic recognition is an important factor in determining whether a nation is an independent state.
For many decades after its becoming independent, even many of the closest allies of the Dutch Republic refused to grant it full recognition. Today there are a number of independent entities without widespread diplomatic recognition, most notably the Republic of China (ROC)/Taiwan on Taiwan Island.
Since the 1970s, most nations have stopped officially recognizing the ROC's existence on Taiwan, at the insistence of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Currently, the United States and other nations maintain informal relations through de facto embassies, with names such as the American Institute in Taiwan.
Similarly, Taiwan's de facto embassies abroad are known by names such as the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office.
This was not always the case, with the US maintaining official diplomatic ties with the ROC, recognizing it as the sole and legitimate government of "all of China" until 1979, when these relations were broken off as a condition for establishing official relations with PR China.
The Palestinian National Authority has its own diplomatic service, however Palestinian representatives in most Western countries are not accorded diplomatic immunity, and their missions are referred to as Delegations General.
Other unrecognized regions which claim independence include Abkhazia, Transnistria, Somaliland, South Ossetia, Nagorno Karabakh, and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.
Lacking the economic and political importance of Taiwan, these territories tend to be much more diplomatically isolated.
Though used as a factor in judging sovereignty, Article 3 of the Montevideo Convention states, "The political existence of the state is independent of recognition by other states."
Informal diplomacy (sometimes called Track II diplomacy) has been used for centuries to communicate between powers.
Most diplomats work to recruit figures in other nations who might be able to give informal access to a country's leadership.
In some situations, such as between the United States and the People's Republic of China a large amount of diplomacy is done through semi-formal channels using interlocutors such as academic members of thinktanks.
This occurs in situations where governments wish to express intentions or to suggest methods of resolving a diplomatic situation, but do not wish to express a formal position.
Track II diplomacy is a specific kind of informal diplomacy, in which non-officials (academic scholars, retired civil and military officials, public figures, social activists) engage in dialogue, with the aim of conflict resolution, or confidence-building.
Sometimes the exchanges may have no connection at all with governments, or may even act in defiance of governments; such exchanges are called Track III.
On some occasion a former holder of an official position continues to carry out an informal diplomatic activity after retirement.
In some cases, governments welcome such activity, for example as a means of establishing an initial contact with a hostile state of group without being formally committed.
In other cases, however, such informal diplomats seek to promote a political agenda different from that of the government currently in power.
Such informal diplomacy is practiced by former US Presidents Jimmy Carter and (to a lesser extent) Bill Clinton and by the former Israeli diplomat and minister Yossi Beilin (see Geneva Initiative).
Small state diplomacy is receiving increasing attention in diplomatic studies and international relations.
Small states are particularly affected by developments which are determined beyond their borders such as climate change, water security and shifts in the global economy.
Diplomacy is the main vehicle by which small states are able to ensure that their goals are addressed in the global arena.
But with limited resources at their disposal, conducting effective diplomacy poses unique challenges for small states.
There are a variety of diplomatic categories and diplomatic strategies employed by organizations and governments to achieve their aims, each with its own advantages and disadvantages.
Preventive diplomacy is action to prevent disputes from arising between parties, to prevent existing disputes from escalating into conflicts and to limit the spread of the latter when they occur.
Since the end of the Cold War the international community through international institutions has been focusing on preventive diplomacy.
Public diplomacy is exercising influence through communication with the general public in another nation, rather than attempting to influence the nation's government directly.
This communication may take the form of propaganda, or more benign forms such as citizen diplomacy, individual interactions between average citizens of two or more nations.
Technological advances and the advent of digital diplomacy now allow instant communication with foreign publics, and methods such as Facebook diplomacy and Twitter diplomacy are increasingly used by world leaders and diplomats.
Soft power, sometimes called hearts and minds diplomacy, as defined by Joseph Nye, is the cultivation of relationships, respect, or even admiration from others in order to gain influence, as opposed to more coercive approaches.
Often and incorrectly confused with the practice of official diplomacy, soft power refers to non-state, culturally attractive factors that may predispose people to sympathize with a foreign culture based on affinity for its products, such as the American entertainment industry and music.
Economic diplomacy is the use of foreign aid or other types of economic policy as a means to achieve a diplomatic agenda.
Counterinsurgency diplomacy, developed by diplomats deployed to civil-military stabilization efforts in Iraq and Afghanistan, employs diplomats at tactical and operational levels, outside traditional embassy environments and often alongside military or peacekeeping forces.
Counterinsurgency diplomacy may provide political environment advice to local commanders, interact with local leaders, and facilitate the governance efforts, functions and reach of a host government.
Gunboat diplomacy is the use of conspicuous displays of military strength as a means of intimidation in order to influence others.
It must also be stated that since gunboat diplomacy lies near to the border between peace and war, victory or defeat in an incident may foster a shift into a political and psychological dimensions: a standoff between a weaker and a stronger state may be perceived as a defeat for the stronger one.
This was the case in the Pueblo Incident in which the Americans lost face with regard to North Korea.
Appeasement is a policy of making concessions to an aggressor in order to avoid confrontation; because of its failure to prevent World War 2, appeasement is not considered a legitimate tool of modern diplomacy.
Nuclear diplomacy is the area of diplomacy related to preventing nuclear proliferation and nuclear war.
One of the most well-known (and most controversial) philosophies of nuclear diplomacy is mutually assured destruction (MAD).
Most countries provide professional training for their diplomats and some run establishments specifically for that purpose.